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Posted on: January 12, 2021

NEW SPECIES OF FOSSIL FOUND ALONG CALVERT CLIFFS

FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE 

Date:               January 12, 2021
Contact:         Anjelica Eitel, Communications & Marketing Coordinator
                        410-326-2042, ext. 8067 Email: Anjelica.Eitel@calvertcountymd.gov 

 

NEW SPECIES OF FOSSIL FOUND ALONG CALVERT CLIFFS
Prehistoric Cobia Named for Local Amateur Paleontologists

        SOLOMONS, MD – January 12, 2021 – On April 27, 2019, local fossil enthusiasts Stephen Groff and Marcus Jones found a partial skull of a fossil fish along Calvert Cliffs. Little did they know at the time that it would turn out to be the find of a lifetime. Using a microscope, needles, and fine brushes, Groff carefully removed the entombing sediments from around the 10 million-year-old bones to reveal a true treasure. This fossil-find consisted of the bony braincase of a cobia – the first ever found in the fossil record. The only known species of living cobia is a marine inhabitant that occurs nearly worldwide in a variety of tropical, subtropical, and warm temperate habitats and occasionally enter estuaries, feeding on crustaceans, cephalopods (squid and their kin), and other fishes. The hand-sized fossilized partial skull was different enough from the living cobia that a new species was named in honor of Groff and Jones, and published recently in the Journal of Paleontology.

Calvert Marine Museum Curator of Paleontology Dr. Stephen Godfrey, along with fossil-fish expert Dr. Giorgio Carnevale of Torino, Italy, named the new species of cobia Rachycentron stremphaencus. When paleontologists describe a new fossil species, one of the perks is that they get to invent a new name for the new species – and they can name it just about anything they like! In this situation, it seemed most fitting to name it after the co-discoverers. So, the new species name “stremphaencus” is derived from a combination of the letters of “Stephen” and “Marcus” with some rearrangement of the letters to make it mellifluous.

Up until now, no species of cobia had ever been named in the fossil record, so this is a first, and big news for paleontologists, both amateur and professional. When asked about the find, Jones said, “It’s a privilege to be able to participate in such an exciting field.”

Groff and Jones found the braincase in a block of sediment that had fallen onto the beach from the adjacent cliff face. When asked about the find, Groff responded, "It wasn't until the next day when I returned with Calvert Marine Museum Paleontology Collections Manager John Nance to collect the specimen, that we realized it was a skull, and it was then that I knew this was going to be something special."

A word of warning! Digging in the cliffs is dangerous and is prohibited without a permit on all state and federal lands. On private land, permission must be obtained from the owners before digging. If you see a skull, bone, or unusual fossil in the cliffs, please report it to the Calvert Marine Museum at 410-326-2042. The museum appreciates getting this information and, if justified by the importance of the find, will make every effort to obtain the necessary permission and have trained personnel collect the specimen, giving full credit to the finder(s).

The clay and sandy sediments in which the fossil was found indicate that the prehistoric environment was a shallow marine one, perhaps even an estuary similar to the present-day Chesapeake Bay. (The Chesapeake Bay as we know it did not exist 10 million years ago.) A large number of predominantly marine species have been found in these deposits, with representatives from several groups of microscopic fossils and invertebrates, like snails and clams, as well as an array of vertebrate species, including a host of sharks and rays, bony fishes, turtles, crocodiles, sea-faring birds, seals, sea cows, dolphins, and baleen whales, and the very rare remains of large terrestrial mammals like extinct elephants and rhinos.

Based on the ecological requirements of the only living species of cobia, and a reconstruction of the environmental conditions that existed when the fossil cobia was alive 10 million years ago, it is reasonable to conclude that Rachycentron stremphaencus was a predatory fish that inhabited the subtropical to warm temperate Atlantic coast of North America during the Late Miocene, where it lived and hunted in shallow marine waters. Inspired by their recent contribution to the world of paleontology, Groff and Jones continue to hunt for fossils along the shores of the Chesapeake Bay.

 
Explore how the prehistoric past, natural environments, and maritime heritage come to life and tell a unique story of the Chesapeake Bay. The Calvert Marine Museum is open daily from 10 a.m. to 5 p.m., with limited capacity and a new timed entry system. Admission is $9 for adults; $7 for seniors, military with valid I.D, AAA and AARP members; $4 for children ages 5 - 12; children under 5 and museum members are admitted free. For more information about the museum, or to make a reservation for your next visit, please go to our website at www.calvertmarinemuseum.com. Keep up to date with the latest from CMM by following us on Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, and YouTube.

 

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Two young men standing next to each other in front of Calvert Cliffs

Photo 1. Marcus Jones (left) and Stephen Groff, co-discoverers of the new species of fossil cobia, Rachycentron stremphaencus. Behind them are the 10 million-year-old sediments in which the skull was discovered. Jones and Groff are also volunteers at the Calvert Marine Museum. Photo by S. Godfrey, CMM.



fossil cobia braincase

Photo 2. Photo of the new cobia braincase showing the top of the skull that housed the brain and the eyes. Front of the skull to the upper right. Photo by S. Godfrey, CMM.




illustration of ancient Miocene cobia

Photo 3. Drawing of what the fossil cobia might have looked like in life, similar to its sole living relative. Illustration by Tim Scheirer (from Carnevale, G., and Godfrey, S.J., 2018, Miocene bony fishes of the Calvert, Choptank, St. Marys, and Eastover Formations, Chesapeake Group, Maryland and Virginia: Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology, v. 100, p. 161–212.

https://smithsonian.figshare.com/articles/book/The_Geology_and_Vertebrate_Paleontology_of_Calvert_Cliffs_Maryland_USA/9761762

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